Adrian Graham

Cover page of Mary Shelley’s The Last Man

The Last Man

Is Mary Shelley’s mostly forgotten post-apocalyptic novel, The Last Man (1826), any good? In a word — yes.

The setup (the first third) is quite slow and it focuses on issues that are probably of greater interest to a reader in 1826 than 2021. This is a personal story about her own loss, and the ‘plague’ (the 1817–1824 cholera pandemic), Republicanism, and catastrophic change. It was widely viewed as being offensive and too far-fetched when it was published.

The novel was eventually republished in 1965. It’s worth reading because it sets out the template for post-apocalyptic fiction, and the group in peril story where people aren’t in control of nature:

  1. Introduce a group of people and the dynamic tension between them.
  2. Introduce a terrifying scenario. (The trauma of this breaks down the old social order, replacing it with a new one based on humanistic values and competence.)
  3. Kill off most of the characters. Those who work together last longer. A small number survive, emerging stronger.


Anna Kavan’s Ice (1967) is a literary speculative fiction novel. The novel takes place in a new ice age, a kind of metaphysical dreamscape. Is it a metaphor for heroin addiction or about alienation from the real world? Or both, perhaps? The protagonist acknowledges his disconnection from reality early on:

Reality had always been something of an unknown quantity to me.

The tone feels like an Edvard Munch painting filmed as an episode of the Twilight Zone. It’s a strange little book. The reader only discovers why the protagonist is really there, in the last line.


Mockingbird (1980) is a dystopian novel by Walter Tevis. It’s set in the distant future, in a post-literate society where robot helpers have infantilised the medicated remnants of humanity.

The protagonist is haunted by a line of dialogue (written as a caption) in a silent film. It’s part of what appears to be a throwaway line from an otherwise uninteresting conversation:

Only the mockingbird sings at the edge of the woods.

What does the line mean? The mockingbird doesn’t sing its own song. It mimics the calls of other birds. In simple terms, the characters — humans and human/robot hybrid — are trying to discover their sense of an authentic self.

Mockingbird is a sombre ‘big ideas’ literary speculative fiction novel about authenticity, self-imposed prisons, and the insidious effects of technology on behaviour. Which prison are we in? Whose song are we singing?

Black No More

Black No More (1931) is George S Schuyler’s Afrofuturist satirical speculative fiction novel about American race politics. What happens when an African American man invents a process that turns ‘black’ people ‘white’?

Black No More is pure Swift in the way it exposes the absurdities of US race politics. It’s not a story about wanting to be white, but a comic vehicle to explore the stupidity of ‘colour prejudice’.

When we meet the protagonist, Max, we see him from the viewpoint of a racist white person:

Max was tall, dapper and smooth coffee-brown. His negroid features had a slightly satanic cast and there was an insolent nonchalance about his carriage.

The ‘Black-No-More’ process transforms America. Max decides to become white, believing that it will make him happier. But life as a white man turns out to be a huge disappointment – it doesn’t make him any happier. Max, now Matthew, gets a job working for a white supremacist group, The Knights of Nordica. Soon enough, he’s involved with the leader’s daughter. When she tells him that she’s pregnant he’s afraid of being outed for his African heritage. Schuyler’s satirical novel is a classic work of black literature that you've never heard of.


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